Thursday, November 28, 2019
Introduction Today, more than ever before, it has become increasingly apparent that the daily functioning of a healthcare institution fundamentally depends on the integrity, availability and dependability of its information systems. Patient health information, research, operations, and finance all depend on highly accessible, reliable, and robust software applications, data, and information technology infrastructure (Glaser Aske, 2010).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Information Security Privacy in Healthcare: Discussing the HIPAA Standards Requirements specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Consequently, healthcare providers are required by law to strictly observe a complexity of standards as outlined in the privacy provisions of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). This paper reviews some underlying issues related to organizational policies, procedures and documentation requirements go verning health entities for HIPAA compliance. Issues in Information Technology Reporting Data One of the underlying issues covered in the document is the need for covered entities to tighten internal and external compliance procedures by ensuring that their business associates subscribes to a set of standards and requirements aimed at ensuring the integrity and reliability of the electronic protected health information (EPHI). This objective is achieved by ensuring that the covered entity obtains signed privacy agreements with the business associates, particularly on the use and disclosure of EPHI (HIPAA, 2007). The second issue concerns the need for the covered entity and its associates to conduct regular audits on EPHI not only to ensure compliance with the requirements and standards outlined in the Act, but also to guarantee that EPHI is used for the intended purposes. Business associates, such as software developers, must therefore develop and implement record-level security ai med at restricting access to EPHI sorely to those who are allowed by the Act (Sarrico Hauenstein, 2011). The variables of EPHI that requires safeguarding as outlined in rules and regulations of HIPAA also comes out strongly in this document. Indeed, the Act requires all stakeholders Ã¢â¬â covered entities, sponsors, business associates, and subcontractors Ã¢â¬â to always ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of EPHI (HIPAA, 2007). For example, a sub-agent contracted by a business associate of a covered entity to create a component of the electronic health register (EHR) must not only ensure the confidentiality, integrity and availability of EPHI under its possession, but must agree to sign compliance agreements that appropriate the task of implementing reasonable and appropriate safeguards to the subcontractor (HIPAA, 2007; Cannoy Salam, 2010).Advertising Looking for essay on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Fourth, the article has comprehensively discussed how breaches to the security of patient health information should be addressed either by the covered entity or by the business associates, sponsors, or subcontractors. Lastly, the document has outlined how policies and procedures required by the Security Rule should be incorporated with the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s mission and culture to enable effective implementation. Here, the covered entities are given a leeway to modify the rules and procedures of the Security Rule to fit their current business practices for policy development and implementation, as long as the modifications are documented and implemented in accordance with the requirements of the Act (HIPAA, 2007). Security Breaches The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) defines a breach as the Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦acquisition, access, use, or disclosure of protected health information in a manner not permitted under [the HIPA A privacy rule] which compromises the security or privacy of the protected health informationÃ¢â¬ (Brown, 2009, p. 27). As such, any use, disclosure of, or access to, electronic patient health information that is not expressly permitted by the HIPAA privacy rule constitutes a security breach. For example, improperly disclosing patient health information that contains the name of the patient and dates of his/her appointments to a third party who is not allowed by the HIPAA security rule to have access to such information constitutes a violation of the privacy rule but not a substantial risk; however, the improper use or disclosure of sensitive patient information, such as the type of services received by the patient, constitutes a breach since such disclosure could result in harm to the patient (Brown, 2009) Technologists working in the covered entity should report the breaches to the individuals who could be harmed as a direct consequence of the breach. Serious breaches, such as those involving more than 500 patients in a given state or jurisdiction, must be reported to the media and the Secretary to the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). For breaches involving less than 500 patients, however, the technologists need to report to the administration of the covered entity, who then maintain a log of the reported breaches with the aim to notify the HHS not late than 60 days after the expiry of the calendar year (Brown, 2009).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Information Security Privacy in Healthcare: Discussing the HIPAA Standards Requirements specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Requirements The requirements noted in the document include: organizational requirements; requirements for group health plans, and; policies, procedures and documentation requirements. Under the organizational requirements, the covered entity is required to enter into binding contracts or other arrangemen ts with business associates who will have direct access to the covered entityÃ¢â¬â¢s EPHI with a view to ensure the effective implementation of administrative, physical, and technical safeguards that realistically and correctly protect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of EPHI. This requirement also outlines ways through which the business associates should report breaches to the security and privacy of patient data, and the consequences for non-compliance (HIPAA, 2007). The standard on the requirements for group health plans obliges the Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦group health plan to ensure that its plan documents require the plan sponsor to reasonably and appropriately safeguard EPHI that it creates, receives, maintains or transmits on behalf of the group health planÃ¢â¬ (HIPAA, 2007, p. 5). This implies that the plan sponsor of the group health plan who has access to sensitive electronic patient health data is required by the Security Rule to plan documents using a languag e which is similar to that already required by the Privacy Rule. Consequently, the sponsor must not only ensure reasonable and appropriate safeguards to the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of EPHI under its disposal, but must also ensure that any agent, including a subcontractor, to whom it avails this data is obliged to implement rational and appropriate security directives to safeguard the information (HIPAA, 2007). Lastly, the requirements deal with issues of how a covered entity may modify its policies and procedures to fit its mission and organizational culture, provided that the modifications are documented and implemented in accordance with the Security Rule (HIPAA, 2007).Advertising Looking for essay on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Withrow (2010), these requirements provide the covered entities with the flexibility they need to implement the policies and procedures of the Security Rule according to their standard business practices, but they must take caution not to circumvent the requirements as enshrined in the Security Rule. In documentation standard, covered entities are not only required to retain documentation for a specified number of years (6 years) from the date of its creation or up to the date when the document was last in effect, but they are also supposed to make the documentation available to the individuals responsible for implementing the procedures to which the documentation pertains (HIPAA, 2007). Reviewing and updating the documentation as needed is also a requirement. IT Workers To ensure adherence to the requirements discussed above, the covered entities must embrace extensive and regular training of all employees, but with particular emphasis to employees in their information technology departments (Sarrico Hauenstein, 2011). The rules, standards, and requirements contained in the HIPAA are complex, thus the need for IT workers to undertake comprehensive training aimed at enlightening them on scenarios that may compromise the security and privacy of EPHI to a level that may make the entities non-compliant. Indeed, the extensive training and education should be extended to the employees of the business associates. Non-Compliance of the Requirements Organizations are often found to be non-compliant to the standards and requirements discussed in this paper due to a number of reasons, with the major one being the lack of proper understanding of what may be considered as a breach to the security and privacy of EPHI (Withrow, 2010). For example, healthcare organizations may not know that some simple acts such as a nurse giving a hospital discharge sheet to the wrong patient may constitute a breach if the health information (e.g., treatment for drug abuse) of the rightful owner is included in the discharge sheet. Varied interpretations of the standards have also been cited as a major cause of non-compliance (Sarrico Hauenstein, 2011). Lastly, failure on the part of the covered entity to implement policies and strategies that lead to reasonable and appropriate protection of the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of EPHI occasions non-compliance. Conclusion The legal liability for non-compliance of HIPAA may be a turning point for any healthcare organization Ã¢â¬â from a profit-making entity to sudden demise (Sarrico Hauenstein, 2011). Equally, EPHI is sensitive in nature and all efforts should be made to protect and safeguard this information with a wider scope of safeguarding the character and reputation of individuals. It is therefore imperative for health institutions to follow the standards and requirements contained in HIPAA to the latter if they are to kill the two birds with one stone. Reference List Brown, B. (2009 ). Notification requirements for breaches of protected health information. Journal of Health Care Compliance, 11(6), 27-30. Cannoy, S.D., Salam, A.F. (2010). A framework for healthcare information assurance policy and compliance. Communications of the ACM, 53(3), 126-131. Glaser, J., Ake, J. (2010). Healthcare IT trends raise bar for information security. Healthcare Financial Management, 64(7), 40-44. HIPAA. (2007). Security standards: Organizational, policies and procedures and documentation requirements. Web. Sarrico, C., Hauenstein, J. (2011). Can EHRs and HIEs get along with HIPAA security requirements? Healthcare Financial Management, 65(2), 86-90. Withrow, S.C. (2010). How to avoid a HIPAA horror story. Healthcare Financial Management, 64(8), 82-88. This essay on Information Security Privacy in Healthcare: Discussing the HIPAA Standards Requirements was written and submitted by user Happy Hogan to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Pamela Colman Smith Biography Pamela Colman Smith is perhaps best known for her design of the iconic Rider Waite Tarot cards, the deck that manyÃ new Tarot readers choose to learn the ropes on. Smith was an unconventional, bohemian artist who traveled the world and rubbed elbows with people like Bram Stoker and William Butler Yeats. Fast Facts: Pamela Colman Smith Full Name: Pamela Colman SmithParents: Charles Edward Smith and Corinne ColmanBorn: February 16, 1878 in Pimlico, London, EnglandDied: September 18, 1951 in Bude, Cornwall, EnglandKnown For: Designed artwork for Rider Waite Smith cards, illustrated works by Stoker and Yeats, wrote and illustrated her own books. Early Years Pamela Colman Smith (1878-1951) was born in London, but she spent her childhood in Manchester and Jamaica with her parents. Smith was biracial; her mother was Jamaican and her father was a white American. As a teenager, Smith- nicknamed Pixie- attended art school in New York City, atÃ the Pratt Institute. After her mother passed away in 1896, Smith left Pratt without graduating to join a traveling theater group and lead the nomadic life of a troubadour. In addition to working onstage, Smith developed a reputation as a skilled costume and set designer. During the early part of the twentieth century, this was an unusual occupation for a young, single woman. She was also active in the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s suffrage movement around the turn of the century. Pamela Colman Smith, the creator of the RWS Tarot deck, around 1912. Public domain / Wikimedia Commons Little is known about her romantic life, although Smith never married or had children. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s certainly possible that she preferred women; scholars have speculated about her relationships with housemate Nora Lake, as well as SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s close friend, actress Edith Craig, who was definitely a lesbian. Smith surrounded herself with creative, intelligent people who valued her passion for art and her exotic appearance as well as her free spirit. Artistic Career Smith developed a stylized look that soon put her in high demand as an illustrator, and some of her most popular drawings were utilized in works byÃ Bram StokerÃ andÃ William Butler Yeats. In addition, she wrote and illustrated her own books, including a collection of Jamaican folktales called Annancy Stories. According to Dianca London Potts, Smith became known for her miniature theatrical pieces inspired by Jamaican folklore and her illustrations, which helped her create a name for herself within artist circles in New York and abroad. She became a sought after illustrator and buzzworthy figure within her community. In 1907, photographer and art promoter Alfred Stieglitz gave Smith exhibition space for a collection of her paintings. She was the first painter to have her work exhibited in his gallery, as he primarily focused on the new art form of photography. Artwork by Pamela Colman Smith, 1913. Russian Ballet,Ã Bobbs-Merrill Co, New York, via Wikimedia Commons Her early work with William Butler Yeats- she illustrated a book of his verses- would prove to be the catalyst for some changes in SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s life. In 1901, he introduced her to his friends in theÃ Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. At some point in her Golden Dawn experience, she met the poet and mystic Edward Waite. Around 1909, Waite commissioned Smith to do the artwork for a new Tarot deck he was interested in creating. Waite wanted to see a Tarot deck in which every card was illustrated- which was something completely new. Up until this point,Ã throughout the history of Tarot, decks primarily had illustrations only onÃ the Major Arcana, and sometimes the court cards. The only known example of a fully illustrated deck up until this point was theÃ Sola BuscaÃ deck, commissioned by a wealthy Milanese family in the 1490s. Waite suggested Smith useÃ Sola BuscaÃ for her inspiration, and there are many similarities in the symbolism between the two decks. Smith was the first artist to use characters as representative images in the lower cards. Rather than just showing a group of cups, coins, wands or swords, Smith worked human beings into the mix and created a rich tapestry of occult symbolism that set the gold standard for modern Tarot decks. Her original images were created using Smiths preferred medium of gouache, a type of opaque watercolor mixed with natural pigments and a binding agent, and often found in advertising illustrations. The resulting collection of 78 cards was published by Rider and Sons, and sold for a whopping six shillings as the first mass market Tarot deck. Thanks to the publisher and Edward Waite, the deck became known commercially as the Rider Waite deck, although in some circles it is now referred to as the Waite Smith deck, or even Rider Waite Smith, as credit to the artist. Two years after creating her iconic Tarot images, Smith converted to Catholicism, and a decade or so later, she used money from an inheritance to open a home for priests in Cornwall, England. Although she continued to produce illustrations, including several for the war effort during World War II, Smith didnt make much money from her work, and never earned royalties from her Tarot images. Although her artwork was popular, she never gained mass commercial success, and she died penniless in Cornwall in September 1951. Afterwards, her personal effects- including unsold artwork- were auctioned off to settle outstanding debt. Sources Alfred Stieglitz and Pamela Colman Smith, pcs2051.tripod.com/stieglitz_archive.htm.Kaplan, Stuart R., et al.Ã Pamela Colman Smith: the Untold Story. U.S. Games Systems, Inc., 2018.Potts, Dianca L. Ã¢â¬Å"Who Was Pamela Colman Smith? The Mystic Woman behind the Rider-Waite Tarot Deck - The Lily.Ã¢â¬ Ã Https://Www.thelily.com, The Lily, 26 July 2018, www.thelily.com/who-was-pamela-colman-smith-the-mystic-woman-behind-the-rider-waite-tarot-deck/.Ramgopal, Lakshmi. Ã¢â¬Å"Demystifying Pamela Colman Smith.Ã¢â¬ Ã Shondaland, Shondaland, 6 July 2018, www.shondaland.com/inspire/books/a21940524/demystifying-pamela-colman-smith/.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Business 101 - Assignment Questions - Research Paper Example In the capitalism context, making profits is the key motive of operation. Under capitalism, resources are privately owned, and so are the implications of the underlying activities (Rae & Hill, 2010). To the businesses, these rights and freedoms come at price. Capitalism makes business owners accountable to the society and to the market economy in which they conduct their business. Pollution, taxation, and social responsibility are other key aspects that make business owners hate capitalism. Most importantly, capitalism encompasses business competition, a critical factor that determines the success or failure of a business. Demand line shows the quantity of a product that would be bought at a given price level. In this respect, changes in market demand will affect quantity of a product demanded in that market. Desirable products correspond to high quantities of demand, and vice versa (McEachern, 2012). on the same note, changes in price affect the quantity demanded of a product. The same principle applies as far as paper and related products are concerned. A demand line shift to the left for paper follows the above-discussed principle. This move represents a scenario where paper would become a less desirable product. The less desirable a product becomes, the lower the quantity demanded and subsequently bought of that product. The demand line, therefore, would shift to the left to represent a decline in the quantity demanded of paper at a given price level. A left shift in demand line, therefore, is negative. It is attributed to reduced paper demand and a subsequent decline in the price level. Business entities are required to comply with relevant rules, regulations, or laws. In particular, taxation is a fundamental practice in the economic setting. Federal taxes apply to incorporated business entities, which are treated as separate taxable business entities. In other words,
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
To what extent is the global financial crisis related to greater volatility in the prices of oil and gas To what extent does it facilitate the contagion of price movements from one commodity to another - Essay Example This paper shall determine the extent to which the global financial crisis is related to greater volatility in the prices of oil and gas. It shall determine to what extent it facilitates the contagion of price movements from one commodity to another. Crude oil prices increased to as much as US$ 147 for each barrel in July of 2008 after a major commodity boom cycle caused by increased demands from developing states (UN Regional Commissions, 2009). However, by August of the same year, oil prices plunged due to the reduced demand from the member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The threat of recession loomed with the financial crisis severely impacting on the worldwide economy (Institute of Development Studies, 2008). In order to end price falls, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) announced various cuts in their output. Oil prices have since reached more stable levels with prices in the mid US$40 per barrel range. Based on the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), the demand for world oil fell by at least 0.2 % in 2008 and 0.4% in 2009 (UN Regional Commissions, 2009). The lower global demand was mostly caused by the lower consumption of oil and gas from developing states with initial 2008 estimates noting 2.9% decrease in oil and gas among OECD member states. The decreased demand is mostly attributed to declined demand among OECD members is primarily attributed to decreasing North America demands which declined to 2% in 2009 and 1.7% in Europe (UN Regional Commissions, 2009). Among the non-OECD countries, their demand for oil and gas increased by 1.4% in 2009 and 2.3% by 2010. Underpinning these figures was the rise of demand among developing states. However, even where such demands continued to rise, it was not insulated from the effects of the global economic crisis, especially as the economy grew at a much slower pace within the short-to-medium term (UN Regional Commissions,
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Marketing research proposal - Essay Example It appears that this group is consuming other soft drinks in large quantities and is attracted to buying drinks for reasons other than quenching thirst. This report will outline how Pepsi-cola should conduct their research using qualitative and quantitative techniques in order to understand the current market trends. This will enable the brand to capture a larger share of the market. In Australia Pepsi competes with its main rival Coca Cola for a share of approximately $3.8Billion. It is estimated that market will continue to compound annually until 2016 by 2.5 percent. More recently market dynamics has changed with the introduction of a number of new healthier and trendy beverages. People are shifting to water and fruit drinks since these are perceived as healthier drinks. Energy drinks on the other hand are gaining popularity due to increase in their advertisement as alternative drinks. These lifestyle and behavioral changes where people are gradually shifting to taking drinks that they perceive to be healthier and trendy have adversely affected the overall sales of the Pepsi cola soft drink product line as illustrated in figure 1. As illustrated in figure 2, the largest consumer group for Pepsi is the 35-50 year old segment, however over the last ten years this group has declined, while the 50-60 year old group is showing increases. On the other hand the 18-35 year old segment has steadily declined. In other words PepsiÃ¢â¬â¢s customer base is declining because of poor adoption rates in the youngest group and changes in the older groupÃ¢â¬â¢s consumption behaviour. The question that PepsiÃ¢â¬â¢s management faces is on how to reverse the decline in sales. Is it to change the advertising/communication strategy or to develop a new product that will capture the market change, that is, to produce a drink that people will perceive as healthy and
Friday, November 15, 2019
Emergence of Ubiquitous Computing in Advertising Everyday Interactions with Advertising Entertainment in the Emergence of Ubiquitous Computing Abstract Technology has been advancing rapidly and although the advances of the past fifty years have not benefited everyone equally, the manner in which humans live out their lives and the functioning of societies has been immensely changed as a result of these advances. Ubiquitous or pervasive computing refers to the new wave of technology which is the result of advances in information and communications technologies which have made it possible to seamless embed powerful computing devices into objects, locations and even people. Embedded devices now shift human attention from systems to their contents as they work tirelessly to reduce the cognitive load and perceive how humans can be assisted in performing tasks associated with all aspects of their existence. The physical and the digital worlds are now intimately related and every object in the real world can now have a representation in the digital world. The capacity of ubiquitous devices to be context Ã¢â¬â sensitive and situation awa re has changed the manner in which humans interact with such devices, offering rich new possibilities for applications to advertising and entertainment, which are amongst the oldest of human endeavours. This essay presents a discussion about advertising and entertainment in the ubiquitous age and examines what changes are likely to emerge in the future. Contents (Jump to) Introduction The Ubiquitous Environment Advertising in the Ubiquitous Age Entertainment in the Ubiquitous Age Conclusion Bibliography/ReferencesÃ Introduction Ubiquitous computing, which is also referred to as pervasive computing, is about the notion that as a result of continuous advances in engineering, information technology, communications, integrated circuit chip technologies and sensors etc computer technology devices will become smaller, cheaper, more capable and better able to weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life until they become indistinguishable from it (Schuster, 2007, Pp. 9 Ã¢â¬â 11). It was Mark Weiser, chief scientist of XeroxÃ¢â¬â¢s Palo Alto Research Centre, who first presented the concept of ubiquitous computing, the third wave in computing and predicted that technology will recede into the background of our lives as computers evolve into quite, invisible servants that will help people to calmly do all kinds of tasks in a manner that will prevent them from becoming overloaded by interactions with computing (Wikipedia, 2007, Ã¢â¬Å"Mark WeiserÃ¢â¬ ). Thus, computers will extend the human unconscious and enhance their ability to productively control, interact and sense their environment. Unlike the traditional computing concepts, which regard computers as devices that run programs in a virtual environment to accomplish a task, ubiquitous or pervasive computing philosophy considers computers as being devices that provide a capacity for interaction with a potential portal into an application Ã¢â¬â data space that assists users to perform tasks in an information Ã¢â¬â enhanced physical space, rather then as devices that execute software whose execution must be controlled by a user. Obviously, the capacity of computing devices to act as portals into an application Ã¢â¬â data space is only rendered possible if the fabrication cost, performance capabilities and reliability of computing devices is enhanced as a result of advances in technology over a broad front (Hennessy, 2007, Chapter 1). Today, data processing, collecting and emitting devices are to be found all around humans in all settings related to their existence, at home, office, in shopping malls or hospitals as well as in transportation vehicles etc (Stakutis, 2005, Chapter 1). These computing devices have been vastly miniaturised as compared to what was available in the past and they are now very much more energy efficient, with enhanced capablities in terms of performance and connectivity with other devices as well as having a superior capacity for interfacing well with smarter sensors. To a casual observer, the wide array of computing devices that are to be found all around us are barely detectable and they are there to serve reliably, without imposing a cognitive load on humans, so that the quality of human existence in all environments can be enhanced. Discrete radio tags, mobile phones that have a capacity for acting as gateways for the World Wide Web and for connecting to many other intelligent devices , intelligent displays and maps that can be presented with information needs, chemical sensors, discrete radio sensors, video cameras, intelligent assistive devices and gaming devices that provide entertainment or information are all testimony to the dawning of the new age of ubiquitous computing. Artificial intelligence is now widely involved with all types of computing to enhance the quality of interactions between human users and a network of intelligent computing devices, which collect and process data on a massive scale. Context, which refers to information that is assistive in gauging, or making judgements about an entity, which may be a person, place or object which is relevant for interaction between a user and an application is now able to be fed into a ubiquitous device which can then react intelligently to fulfil the requirements of its human users without placing any burdens on those that it has been designed to assist (Loke, 2007, Chapter 1). Location of people or objec ts, time, execution state of applications, user emotions, user intentions, the state of brain activity of users, computational resources that are available, the state of software applications and available network bandwidth are examples of contexts that can be of use to ubiquitous devices in interacting with users in a superior manner. Device designers can now be highly creative about using context information and also in regard to what can be feasibly sensed, the optimal manner in which information can be sensed and how sensor information may be used to judge context to optimise device interactions and utility. A number of contextual cues that have been inferred by a ubiquitous device can be combined to form an idea about a situation and the device can then be made to react in accordance with the requirements for a situation. The notion of situation makes it possible for the ubiquitous system designers to carve the world into manageable pieces that can be sensed by sensors, with a separation of reaction rules for each manageable piece providing an adequate response for different situations. Thus, a context aware ubiquitous system should be able to sense, think and act in a manner that is as assistive to humans as possible (Loke, 2007, Chapter 2). If a sense of context and situation can be programmed into the capacity for intelligence of a ubiquitous device, then it should also be appropriate to expect that norms or expectations of appropriate behaviour from device under given situations involving external contexts can also be incorporated into the programming for the device (Ibrahim, 2007, Pp. 54 Ã¢â¬â 58). Thus, ubiquitous devices should be able to sense a situation or a set of context in order to try and interact in the most appropriate manner with human users. As an example, location and time context can be utilised to present the most appropriate advertising messages to shoppers on a supermarket advertising board and it may also be possible to incorporate an ability to determine what items ought to be highlighted more, depending on the inventory stock situation for a store, or the rate at which sales are being made. Advertising companies are constantly seeking better ways to promote their goods and services to selected consumers who are likely to be most receptive to such messages and ubiquitous, or pervasive environments will permit delivery of the most relevant advertising messages, which have been selected from a large number of possible messages to consumers in a far more personal, intimate and appropriate manner then the mass media advertising that has been available (Leckenby, 2006, Ã¢â¬Å"Advertising IssuesÃ¢â¬ ) and (Hong, 2007, Ã¢â¬Å"Advertising in the EnvironmentÃ¢â¬ ). In the ubiquitous world it will be possible to generate believable, personality rich story characters on a display that may want to appropriately alter the emotional state of a human, depending on the time and their physical condition as sensed from their body posture (Li, 2006, Pp. 132). Emotion recognition systems may also make it possible for entertainment systems to suggest the right movies, audio clips or interactive games and it may be possible to provide real Ã¢â¬â time information on a wide variety of is sues to bus commuters or to generate music which is influenced by the motion of a human conductor within the ambiance (Li, 2006, Pp. 31, 132, 223, 229, 293, 366, 384 and 433). The possibilities for enhancing interactions related to advertising and entertainment are many and ubiquitous devices generally try to ease the cognitive load and provide intelligent sensing of user needs. Entertainment and advertising are amongst the oldest concepts that are known to mankind (Vogel, 2007, Pp. 1 Ã¢â¬â 5). As a result of productivity increases, which have also been assisted by advances in computing and information technology, leisure time has increased and people spend more time on all forms of leisure and entertainment activities. Although demand for entertainment has increased, so also has the variety of entertainment which is available and individuals have the greatest preference for rich media video type viewing activities that are relatively affordable. Although, the advertising industry is doing well also, it has been hampered by strict regulations on what can and cannot be done, with expenditure shifting from the traditional advertising mediums to the new electronic forms of advertising that use emerging technologies (Sweney, 2007, Paragraph 1) and (Ramsey, 2004, Pp. 1 Ã¢â¬â 2). Online advertising expenditure in the United States in the year 2004 alone exce eded $ 17.5 billion and the consumer is in control, wanting unique and attractive forms of advertising and entertainment. Thus, it makes sense to try and understand how individuals will interact with advertising and entertainment in the new ubiquitous age and this essay presents a discussion about the likely form that advertising and entertainment will take in the future. The Ubiquitous Environment It is appropriate at this juncture to try and imagine what the ubiquitous world of tomorrow is likely to be like. The world of the future will be characterised by wireless connectivity and miniature, but immense computing power that is connected to very fine sensors (Mathieson, 2005, Pp. 1 Ã¢â¬â 10). Global positioning systems (GPS) will make it possible for location sensing to within meters and it will be possible to interact with intelligent computing devices using the most convenient human modes for interaction, speech and hearing. Converged networks that connect ubiquitous devices will be intelligent, high capacity and high speed networks with a capacity for moving huge amounts of data to any connection very rapidly. Short Ã¢â¬â range wireless networks, similar to Bluetooth, will supplement global connectivity provided by the ubiquitous network. The occurrence of selected events will be able to trigger intelligent responses from devices and as an example it will be possible to inform the police and nominated relatives of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s location if air bags in a car were to be inflated as a result of an accident. It will be possible to monitor the activities of the children in a family in order to determine if a child has attended class or if they may have ventured too far away from a neighbourhood. Electronic money contained in RFID tags which are attached to a car, or mobile devices that are carried by a person will be able to pay for any road toll, bridge taxes or minor traffic violations without a requirement to stop. 3G cellular networks will become prolific and they will make it possible to have unified voice, video and data connections serve all human senses to provide rich interaction experiences. Computers will be able to create close to real life experiences for humans that stimulate all their senses and already scientists are thinking about devices that will stimulate the human sense of smell (Kaye, 2001, Pp. 1 Ã¢â¬â 20). Smart cl oths will have a capacity for monitoring body signals and it will be possible to monitor brain waves to interact with computing devices. Intelligent home appliances will be able to monitor what is available in a home and they will not only alert individuals if the refrigerator is running low on certain items, but tiny Ã¢â¬Å"smart dustÃ¢â¬ sensors will also monitor food items for biological and chemical agents that determine if such items are still fit for human consumption. Intelligent homes, buildings and stores as well as hospitals will react to individual needs and provide appropriate assistance as required. Prompt and pre-emptive response from computing will have become a reality. Sophisticated avatar characters will provide more pleasing human computer interactions that will convey elements of emotion that has been generated by computers. JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s ubiquitous architecture provides an indication of many trends that are emerging for the future (Krikke, 2005, Pp. 4 Ã¢â¬â 9). Ubiquitous or pervasive computing is the result of advanced networking, powerful personal computing, embedded computing and advanced artificial intelligence based human Ã¢â¬â computer interaction capability. The ubiquitous age is characterised by the evolution of ambient intelligent environments and these environments are driven by new interaction technology which provides for new ways of using content, new sensing or stimulus generating technologies, faster and more powerful computers and far greater storage capacities for data etc (Eyles, 2007, Pp. 4). The ubiquitous age will be characterised by ubiquitous computing, ubiquitous communication and intelligent user Ã¢â¬â friendly interfaces and the resulting ambient intelligence will provide for context awareness, personalisation, immersion and adaptability. Context awareness refers to a device having knowledge about its environment and acting in accordance with such knowledge, personalisation refers to having the ability to deliver information and interactions in accordance with a userÃ¢â¬â¢s requirements and adaptability refers to the device having a capacity for modifying its performance according to externally imposed requirement s to best cater to a user. Clearly, many opportunities will exist for utilising new technology for advertising and entertainment. However, in view of the fact that the ubiquitous environment will have the capacity for collecting a large amount of personal data which will be used for enriching individual experiences, but which can also be misused, privacy in the ubiquitous environment is an issue (Mutanen, 2007, Pp. 24 Ã¢â¬â 43). A number of techniques are being researched to protect individual privacy in the ubiquitous age, but the trusted authority concept is amongst the more promising ways for protecting individual privacy. Advertising in the Ubiquitous Age Ubiquitous environments will permit a variety of methods to present advertising messages to people, including email, instant messaging, cell Ã¢â¬â phone, network television and electronic display boards etc that are linked together as a result of convergence of new mobile technology, IT and media on an integrated global infrastructure (Ihlstr, 2007, Pp. 1 Ã¢â¬â 5). The ubiquitous environment will have a chain of sensors that will be deployed by advertising service providers to sense contexts, including location, weather condition variables, such as temperature and what the intended audience is engaged in at a location, so that the more appropriate advertising message on the right channel may be presented (Leckenby, 2007, Ã¢â¬Å"Advertising IssuesÃ¢â¬ ). The context information is useful for presenting the right advertising messages to the right people at the right time and on the right channel using the more appropriate form of advertising message. Context is also important f or displaying advertising messages that are likely to be important for a particular location, such as those messages that are placed by local businesses in a suburb. Research indicates that although tastes are likely to vary, recipients are interested in the entertainment content of advertisements and this means that the right advertising messages have to be created for the right format. Advertising messages should provide for a means by which a recipient can follow Ã¢â¬â up on what has been received and recipients will certainly require that their privacy and security be protected. Consumers who are linked to the ubiquitous network of devices can be made to provide information about their preferences and it is likely that they may want to have their more relevant personal attributes made available on a ubiquitous user database. The ubiquitous environment is certain to have a large number of peripheral displays that are mounted at convenient locations, including close to elevator s, at convenient points on streets and in shopping malls or other public locations. Serendipitous advertisements are most likely to fit in well on displays in a ubiquitous environment, because other messages can be sent in a more personalised and discrete manner. The advertisements that are required to be placed will be booked with advertising service providers who will have facilities for creation of advertising messages and the distribution of such messages over the ubiquitous networks. It is most likely that mobile wireless networks will become even more important in an age of ubiquitous networks and this means that personal mobile devices, especially a PDA type device or an advanced mobile phone which can be used for a wide variety of interactions with the ubiquitous network and other users will assume a higher level of significance in the lives of individual users (Loke, 2007, Chapter 3). Individuals will be using such devices to send and receive emails, transfer funds to businesses or other users, retain data for a wide variety of purposes including inventory for groceries that are in stock at home, immediate purchasing needs and any purchasing transactions that may have been carried out in the past etc. Sensors placed at various locations on the ubiquitous networks will be able to interrogate the mobile device of a user and depending on what information is permitted to be shared the advertising and entertainment service providers will be able to determine what is likely to be of interest to the owner of a mobile. Thus, those who are within an airport terminal may be provided with advertising related to bargain fares, while a short message from a PDA can bring a message containing information about local restaurants offering special deals. Advertising displays may call individuals on a first name basis after having sensed information related to their identity from their personal mobile device when they are in proximity of an intelligent display and it will be possible for such individuals to interact with intelligent displays using speech to present their preferences (Mathieson, 2005, Pp. 1 Ã¢â¬â 10). It will be possible to shop for pizza, movies, books and music anywhere and at anytime, with the purchase instructions emanating from a personal device along with a payment authority and it will be possible to accept digital delivery in a format which is both highly portable and widely usable. Today we live in a world in which very many advertising messages influence individuals as they carry on with their daily lives and many of such advertising messages are likely to be of little interest. The rising cost of advertising makes advertising expensive. It is important that if individuals find something that interests them in the large number of advertising messages that they are presented with, then they should be able to quickly retrieve information for further interactions with the advertiser. Beaming is a new advertising technique that is being experimented with by several firms and the idea is to permit those who view advertising on electronic displays to retrieve and store electronic contact information into their mobile devices through their deviceÃ¢â¬â¢s infrared or Bluetooth port (Krikke, 2005, Pp. 24). The information that is able to be transferred into a mobile device through beaming is then used by the device to provide links through the network for further inte ractions with the advertisers. Newer forms of beaming will permit those mobile devices with a camera to Ã¢â¬Å"photographÃ¢â¬ information that has been coded into black and symbols, called SpotCodes. A SpotCode has been presented in figure 3, below. After a phone has succeeded in Ã¢â¬Å"clickingÃ¢â¬ in information that has been presented on a visual advertisement, it will be possible to use this information to retrieve all the details into an email that can be sent to a nominated address, or if desired, immediate purchase can be made by using the mobile device. Thus, emerging technologies will make it possible to enhance the effectiveness of advertising by making it cheaper, easier and more convenient to follow up on advertising, which should be of benefit to the advertiser and the consumer. The idea is to facilitate transactions and to enhance convenience in a manner that will not waste resources or the attention span of the consumer. Great opportunities will exist to develop evolving relationships with consumers through ubiquitous advertising and advertisers, or at least their messages, can go where the customer is, with a capacity for initial interest to be rapidly transformed into more information or interaction without any need to move through the physical space. Advertising message delivery does not have to be visual all the time and Ã¢â¬Å"targeted audioÃ¢â¬ technology will make it possible for laser beams to be pointed to persons who will then be the only ones who will be able to hear an audio message (Krikke, 2005, Pp. 143 160). Thus, after sensing individual preferences, it will be possible to direct speech communications to individuals in a location so that only those who are likely to be interested listen to these messages. Thus, it is not just Bluetooth that will be used to transmit short range location based information. The ubiquitous network will follow the user and not the other way round. Augmented reality devices will have been made perfect in the ubiquitous age and those who live in this age will not just be carrying a PDA type device, but they will also be wearing a comfortable spectacle, if they so desire, that will assist in visual encounters with the ubiquitous world. It will be possible to superimpose additional inform ation on to visual advertising messages that may be presented to individuals through the augmented reality devices and examples of such additional information may include balance of a bank account containing electronic money, or location information for outlets. It will even be possible to interact with large electronic advertising boards through gestures in order to prompt them to provide additional information to either a PDA type wireless device or the augmented reality device which may be worn by a user. Researchers have already tried to develop a gesture recognition language that can change the way in which humans interact with ubiquitous computing devices of the future (Krikke, 2005, Pp. 202). Promotions and special offers can be quickly presented to consumers who can electronically collect coupons and if a loyal shopper is identified during an advertising or promotional campaign, they can be presented especially attractive discounts or offers electronically. Face recognition and the detection of emotions by examining faces will make it possible to cheer Ã¢â¬â up a loyal customer who may be feeling a bit down and the buying habits of consumers can be examined to determine if certain consumers are loosing interest, so that a special effort can be mounted to win them back. It will be possible to embed identity on to each person using RFID devices that may be mounted on to a watch, or even be embedded under a personÃ¢â¬â¢s skin so that immediate identification and connection to the most appropriate databases that are likely to be of interest can be made possible. Very many possibilities for enhancing advertising present themselves, but the key to have these possibilities becoming reality is the advances that can be made in packing small chips with huge computing power and imbuing networks with capacity and speed. Entertainment in the Ubiquitous Age Although better networks and more powerful computers as well as advances in technology on a broad front will enhance the overall entertainment experience in the ubiquitous age, entertainment in the new era will be characterised by its extension into the physical world and a capacity for interaction (Eyles, 2007, Pp. 1 Ã¢â¬â 5). Augmented reality will have an impact on the entertainment experience by superimposing the virtual on to the real in a number of ways that may also include the use of holograms. Internet will add to the traditional methods for delivering entertainment content to viewers and video appliances will be able to predict what will be the most appropriate viewing choice for individuals based on their estimation of the emotions of a user, their activities and important occurrences in the real world. Video on demand is already a reality, but context aware music and wireless networked video on demand will be the norm with the entertainment devices of tomorrow. Sur round screen systems, using mist or water droplets to project video images and collaborative multiple browsing arrangements are examples of new ways in which the senses can be artistically manipulated (Peterson, 2005, Pp. 8 Ã¢â¬â 12). Entertainment is likely to be influenced by notions of temporal and spatial mobility as well as context, mood and emotion. The integration of artistic forms and technology, interactivity with a capacity for manipulating entertainment and media experiences, the use of hypermedia concept to link media elements into a personally satisfying experience, immersion which will permit entering a three dimensional environment that approaches complete entertainment and a emphasis on a superior ability to narrate in order to support the moment Ã¢â¬â by Ã¢â¬â moment mood of the individual mind will continue to dominate entertainment in the ubiquitous age with entertainers and artists innovating to exploit the power of technology (Burnett, 2003, Chapter 1). Individual users are more likely to be closely connected to ubiquitous computing devices through cybernetic systems and this will permit a closer connection of the human form with the electronic environment (Burnett, 2003, Chapter 2). This means that the human user will be able to more intimately control a variety of ubiquitous devices through the motion and expression of every part of their body and as an example, dance will be able to influence music and stage lighting effects more closely then ever before, resulting in new and richer forms of artistic impression for the audience. Wireless or sonar tracking systems will eliminate any need to have physical connections between a human form and any ubiquitous devices, resulting in a true freedom of movement and expression with a capacity for artistically manipulating other sensory impulses for the audience. The smart entertainment space concept is illustrated in figure 4, below. The concept of anytime anywhere entertainment will mean that it will be possible to use an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s PDA device to shop for a very wide variety of entertainment games, videos or experiences from anywhere and at anytime (Krikke, 2005, Pp. 63 Ã¢â¬â 64). High speed networks will deliver what has been requested in a flash and the content can be viewed on a portable PDA or a home entertainment centre which will offer more options for enhancing entertainment pleasure or even interacting with the entertainment presentation. Interactivity will mean that as a story rolls on, a viewer can choose options that influence future narration and influence the present in the narration. Wideband network connectivity will mean that it will be possible to carry on with social interactions with distant human friends while simultaneously interacting with computer generated entertainment which may include avatars that are beamed into the homes of all those who are connected to a social gatherin g which is distant in space, but close in time. All those who are connected can interact simultaneously with the computer that is generating entertainment animations and view the results in real time. Such entertainment sessions are certainly going to need very high speed networks, immense computing power for the ubiquitous entertainment centres and real time processing power to put together socialisation in an augmented reality world and large amounts of data will have to be maintained in storage for rapid retrieval with such data also being rapidly moved over the ubiquitous networks. When individuals are indulging in remote interactions, such as those over videoconferencing, it is not possible to touch or feel the people at a distance and this means that a certain loss of emotional information currently exists in computer mediated interactions. Touch, or hepatic interaction devices that are being considered in research today and new forms of interfaces that attempt to present more emotion information by various means, such as colour changing displays or avatars will make entertainment and social interactions more fun (ISMAR, 2007, Pp. 33 Ã¢â¬â 35). Thus, it will be possible to further improve the tangible content of interactions involving computers. Computer generated reality will make it possible for individuals to either learn or play games, such as squash, all by themselves using a racquet that will contain position sensors that are coupled to a computer that will fix the position of such a racquet in real time, in relation to a computer generated ball, mak ing it possible for the user to experience the thrill of a real squash game (ISMAR, 2007, Pp. 4 Ã¢â¬â 9 and 21 Ã¢â¬â 27). Many different games, including fencing, tennis, table tennis, badminton or even ice hockey etc will be available on the same entertainment centre, which will also provide delights of high speed driving, ice skating or piloting a jet fighter with appropriate gaming attachments. Natural interaction will be possible with contemporary art, including music and lighting patterns emanating from a music wall and this will make it possible for individuals to seek new creative and thrilling experiences (ISMAR, 2007, Pp. 47 Ã¢â¬â 52). New forms of interactive exhibitions will be possible for art and antiquities etc, with computer generated avatars providing more human like guidance around museums or other interesting places (ISMAR, 2007, Pp. 53 Ã¢â¬â 58). It will be possible for painters and graphic artists to create on computer palettes and to imbue their work with emotionally responsive features and a certain level of dynamism that will make their work far more interesting as compared to the paintings of today (ISMAR, 2007. Pp. 61 Ã¢â¬â 66). Changes in te
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
The Scarlet Letter:Ã PearlÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Children are incredibly sensitive and can sense almost any emotion of an adult by observing body language and facial expressions. Such is the case with the youthful Pearl from the novel The Scarlet Letter, by Nathaniel Hawthorne. As the daughter of the adulteress Hester Prynne, the townspeople view Pearl as a demon in an angelÃ¢â¬â¢s clothing; who not only knows exactly what the letter "A" signifies on the bosom of her mother, but as the demon who placed it there, as well. The townspeople believe that Pearl uses this information against Hester by constantly mentioning the letter in order to make Hester extremely uncomfortable. This belief of the townspeople is certainly not supported by the following dialogue. " Ã¢â¬ËNay, mother, I have told all I know,Ã¢â¬â¢ said Pearl more seriously than she was wont to speakÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢But is good earnest now, mother dear, what does this scarlet letter mean?- and why dost thou wear it in thy bosom?- and why does the minister keep his hand over his heart?Ã¢â¬â¢ She took her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s hand in both her own, and gazed into her eyes with an earnestness that was seldom seen in her wild and capricious character." (Hawthorne 164) Ã This dialogue does not seem to be the words of a demon, but of a child who is utterly curious about what the letter "A" on her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s bosom means. One should not underestimate PearlÃ¢â¬â¢s intelligence. Pearl is not the demon many townspeople consider her to be; instead she is intelligent and sensitive towards her surroundings and can understand much about the scarlet letter Hester wears. "The neighboring townspeopleÃ¢â¬ ¦ had given out that poor little Pearl was a demon offspring; such as ever since old Catholic times had occasionally bee... ...tions lead a reader to realize that she does see a link between HesterÃ¢â¬â¢s letter and DimmesdaleÃ¢â¬â¢s habit of covering his heart with his hand, although she does not know what this connection is. Pearl is an amazing child and perhaps one of the few many-sided characters in the novel. Although some readers of this novel may not care to read between the lines and see beyond the labeling of demon, the true Pearl is completely different from this stereotype. The real Pearl, the inquisitive, intelligent, and beautiful creature that she is, becomes the symbol for salvation in this novel. Pearl may be the product of sin and "filthiness", yet she possesses traits that make her an amazing child. Indeed, Pearl is the rosebush which grows near the prison door: she is the one bright spot the prisoners of this novel see as they peer through the small windows of their confinement.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Running head: EMPLOYEE PORTFOLIO: MANAGEMENT PLAN Employee Portfolio: Management Plan MGT/311 Organizational Development University of Phoenix Riordan Manufacturing has implemented a management plan that will assess employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ characteristics. By assessing their characteristics, the organization will know how to use their characteristics to make the organization more successful. The company has asked three employees to complete self-assessments about job satisfaction.The assessments will ultimately allow management to discover characteristics of the employees and determine how these characteristics will affect Riordan Manufacturing in the future. Self-assessments give an employee the opportunity to provide a narrative description of their major accomplishments, job satisfaction, emotional influence and how they make decisions related to their performance. In a self? assessment, the employee can describe their major contributions and how they accomplished or did not accomplish their performance expectations.After a thorough analysis of the self-assessments, additional recommendations will be presented to assist Riordan Manufacturing gain a better perspective on the management and motivation that these employees will need in order to succeed. The participants in the Riordan Manufacturing self-assessments were Catrina Toth, Kyle Rogers, and Paul Holliday. The following self-assessments were administered to the employees: How Satisfied Am I with My Job, Am I Engaged, How Are You Feeling Right Now, WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s My Affect Intensity, WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s My Emotional Intelligence Score, and Am I A Deliberate Decision Maker?Management will use these assessments to identify the areas in which they scored high and low and create a plan based on the areas that mostly need more engagement. CatrinaÃ¢â¬â¢s self-assessments indicate a job satisfaction rating at an average. She is satisfied with her job but not really engaged, is a deliberate decision maker, and exhibits po sitive emotions. Kyle has an above average rating in most areas; he is very satisfied with his job and is engaged in his work, exhibits an average score on deliberate decision-making and demonstrates positive emotions.Paul demonstrates a high score in job satisfaction, is a deliberate decision maker and also exhibits positive emotions on his self-assessments. The efficiency of the company is directly affected when employees are satisfied with their job and position held. An employee with a high level of job satisfaction feels more positive about his or her job and will continue to be a productive member of the company. Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction is the general attitude one holds about a job, which can dramatically affect the effectiveness and efficiency of the organizationÃ¢â¬ (Robbins & Judge, 2011). Companies with satisfied employees tend to reduce the levels of absenteeism and turnover rate. Employees with low levels of job satisfaction experience negative attitudes abo ut their jobs, tend to have a high absenteeism rates, leave the organization, or engage in deviant behaviors that negatively affect the organization and other employees.The self-assessment results reveal that employees at Riordan Manufacturing exhibit positive behaviors influencing other employees in the workplace. Employee Engagement The employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ engagement indicates their involvement and enthusiasm for their work (Robbins & Judge, 2011). All three of the self-assessed employees are highly satisfied with their jobs, are committed to their responsibilities, and motivated. Dedicated employees commit more time to their work, are a positive influence on others, and perform at higher levels than expected.Self-Assessment Recommendations Management at Riordan Manufacturing recommends additional assessments to conclude what is their job satisfaction level. Understanding these factors would describe a positive feeling about a job. It is important to understand what provides positiv e feelings and low-level negative feelings. Also management recommends more job involvement because this would enhance the level of attitude toward the assigned tasks and duties.It is important to be involved because management can identify strengths and show that company cares about the kind of work employees do. The recommendation of additional assessments will provide both the employees and managers with additional information on each personality to implement better managerial techniques. Based on those results, managers will develop management plans to encourage and mentor employee success. References Robbins, S. P. , & Judge, T. A. (2011). Organizational behavior (14th ed. ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Overview of the Basics of Probability Probability is a term we are relatively familiar with. However, when you look up the definition of probability, youll find a variety of similar definitions. Probability is all around us. Probability refers to the likelihood or relative frequency for something to happen. The continuum of probability falls anywhere from impossible to certain and anywhere in between. When we speak of chance or the odds; the chances or odds of winning the lottery, were also referring to probability. The chances or odds or probability of winning the lottery is something like 18 million to 1. In other words, the probability of winning the lottery is highly unlikely. Weather forecasters use probability to inform us of the likelihood (probability) of storms, sun, precipitation, temperature and along with all weather patterns and trends. Youll hear that theres a 10% chance of rain. To make this prediction, a lot of data is taken into account and then analyzed. The medical field informs us of the likelihood of developing high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, the odds of beating cancer etc. The Importance of Probablity in Everyday Life Probability has become a topic in math that has grown out of societal needs. The language of probability starts as early as kindergarten and remains a topic through high school and beyond. The collection and analysis of data have become extremely prevalent throughout the math curriculum. Students typically do experiments to analyze possible outcomes and to calculate frequencies and relative frequencies.Why? Because making predictions is extremely important and useful. Its what drives our researchers and statisticians who will make predictions about disease, the environment, cures, optimal health, highway safety, and air safety to name a few. We fly because we are told that there is only a 1 in 10 million chance of dying in an airplane crash. It takes the analysis of a great deal of data to determine the probability/chances of events and to do so as accurately as possible. In school, students will make predictions based on simple experiments. For instance, they roll dice to determine how often theyll roll a 4. (1 in 6) But they will also soon discover that it is very difficult to predict with any kind of accuracy or certainty what t.he outcome of any given roll will be. They will also discover that the results will be better as the number of trials grows. The results for a low number of trials is not as good as the results are for a large number of trials. With probability being the likelihood of an outcome or event, we can say that the theoretical probability of an event is the number of outcomes of the event divided by the number of possible outcomes. Hence the dice, 1 out of 6. Typically, the math curriculum will require students to conduct experiments, determine fairness, collect the data using various methods, interpret and analyze the data, display the data and state the rule for the probability of the outcome. In summary, probability deals with patterns and trends that occur in random events. Probability helps us to determine what the likelihood of something happening will be. Statistics and simulations help us to determine probability with greater accuracy. Simply put, one could say probability is the study of chance. It affects so many aspects of life, everything from earthquakes occurring to sharing a birthday. If youre interested in probability, the field in math youll want to pursue will be data management and statistics.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
In a time of political dissent and eventual revolution, our great nation was founded. Our founding fathers experienced first hand what it was like to not have their natural rights as humans recognized. They based this nations foundation and laws on protecting those unalienable rights of man, which are, life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness (Declaration of Independence 1). Here in the United States, the main protector of the unalienable rights of man is the Bill of Rights in the Constitution. Perhaps the most essential amendment to the Bill of Rights is the first amendment which says, Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances (Bill of Rights 1). Even though the First Amendment clearly states these rights, there have been four attempts to m! uddle out parts of the First Amendment by adding an amendment that bans flag desecration. I understand the offense that is created by desecrating the symbol of our country. But adding an amendment to the Constitution that bans flag desecration should not happen because it takes away the peoples right to show their disapproval of the government. Although I approve of the latest failure of the amendment on 29 March 2000 in the senate and will approve of the future dismissals of the amendment, I am not supporting flag desecration; I am simply supporting the right to desecrate the flag. America is the greatest country in the world because of the freedom and rights granted to us in the Bill of Rights. Sir Winston Churchill observed in 1945 the United States is a land of free speech. Nowhere is speech freernot even [in England], where we sedulously cultivate it even in its most repulsive forms (quoted in A Flag Desec...
Sunday, November 3, 2019
To what extent should companies go with business bluffing in order to maximize profit - Essay Example In the present age, when the people have become very conscious regarding the environmental issues and the health and safety aspects of business, businessmen are exposed to a lot of challenges. The rise in level of social consciousness comes as a potential threat to the profitability of businesses because the two are on the two extremes of the seesaw. The profitability increases when the standards of ethics are not complied with and vice versa. Businessmen frequently make use of bluffing to maximize their profits. Bluffing in business is essentially a strategy of the like which is used in games like poker. The game strategy has no reflection in the blufferÃ¢â¬â¢s morality. When a businessman respects truth, he/she essentially considers it Ã¢â¬Å"the basis of private moralityÃ¢â¬ (Carr). A businessman deserves respect for respecting the truth. Bluffing has become an essential component of many kinds of businesses. For example, in court, when a lawyer fights a case for a client, his/her job is to prove that he/she is not guilty regardless of what the truth is, and this is fully understood by the judge and everyone who is involved in the jury down the line. It is commonly said that the court is blind, which means that a judge can not take a decision if he/she believes one of the parties is right unless that party provides the judge with sufficient evidence against the criminal party. This is perfectly consistent with Henry TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s statement, Ã¢â¬Å"falsehood ceases to be falsehood when it is understood on all sides that the truth is not expected to be spokenÃ¢â¬ (Carr). This description of bluffing is as valid for business as it is for poker . Corporate executives can not make independent decisions. Their actions are guided by the instructions of the top management. However, in addition to being an employee, a corporate executive is just as human as his/her manager. The corporate executive thinks from his/her own mind and is fully capable of analyzing the quality of decision enforced by the manager. Quite often, a corporate executive may not approve of the decision of the top management, but there is nothing he/she can do about it because if he/she attempts to, he/she will risk the job. Therefore, most corporate executives tend to remain silent rather than giving voice to their conflicting views, and this, for many, is the strategy of survival in the workplace. In this way, business ethics resemble the game ethics both of which are totally different from the ethics of religion. Businessmen generally maintain self constructed standards of ethics and tend to comply with them. As long as they are doing good on certain scal es of ethics that they value the most, they are happy that they are conducting the business ethically and their conscience is fully satisfied. The Democrat, Omar Burleson from Texas expressed his views about his own business practice in these words: I can tell you that we pride ourselves on our ethics. In thirty years not one customer has ever questioned my word or asked to check our figures. We're loyal to our customers and fair to our suppliers. I regard my handshake on a deal as a contract. I've never entered into price-fixing schemes with my competitors. I've never allowed my salesmen to spread injurious rumors about other companies. Our union contract is the best in our industry. And, if I do say so myself, our ethical standards are of the highest! (Burleson cited in Carr). In fact, the difference arises from the disparity of perceptions about the ethical standards of the businessmen and those of the stakeholders. When a businessman says that his ways are ethical, it most often means that he/she complies with the ethics of
Friday, November 1, 2019
Final phil - Essay Example A little history of Hinduism has it that Hinduism and Buddhism were originated in South Asia. The history of Hindu has far more than that of Hinduism. It was used by Persian conquerors, since the middle of the first millennium BCE; refer to the indigenous populations living in the surroundings of the river flowing along the north- western frontiers of the Indian subcontinent, Sindhu. The prophet Gautama Buddha, who was the prince of the kingdom Kapilavatthu named Siddhartha, at the Himalayan Foothills, around 490 BCE, who was to become Gautama Buddha after his renunciation, founded Buddhism. Hinduism also means the emergence of Vedas, in which the Upanishads were composed between the 7th and 3rd century and also it became a part of the Vedas. Buddhism was emerged as a part of Shramana movements, around the 5th century.Ã¢â¬Å"Hinduism has the belief of monotheistic (one God) as well as polytheistic (many Gods) elements: the one Supreme Being (Brahman) also exists simultaneously in the deities of the Creator (Brahma), the Reality or Sustainer (Vishnu) and the Destroyer (Shiva)Ã¢â¬ (Hinduism par.6). According to the Buddhism philosophy, there is no god which does not believe in the concept of god. Ã¢â¬Å"In fact, often those who scorn others, claiming some unconvincing excuse, are unable to look the target of their ridicule directly in the eye, perhaps because they see their ownselves thereÃ¢â¬ (Ikeda & Nanda p.9). The reincarnation and ultimate salvation was taught by Buddhism and rejected Vedas of Hinduism. An important principle of Hinduism is the Law of Karma. It is important to note that Buddhism has the doctrines, which were written in Pali Ã¢â¬âa canon text. Yoga is one of the important disciplines of Hinduism. Through Yoga, one can get a controlled body and mind. In Buddhism, they have the concept for salvation which is depended on oneself and not to others. Traditional worship of God is known as pooja in Hindu. There will be a pooja room in every HinduÃ¢â¬â¢s house. However, it is important to note that the doctrine of Hinduism is not a fixed uniform, on contrary it is inclusive, broad and further its tolerant to many points of view (Chapter 19: Asian Thought p.411). Buddhism was found not only in India, but also in other countries like Sri Lanka (Ceylon), Myanmar (Burma), China, Korea, Thailand, Tibet and Japan. They also rejected the caste system which is in Hinduism. Moreover, Buddhism has a founder in Gautama Buddha, while Hinduism does not have any founder of its own. It was originated as a civilisation in the surroundings of River Sindhu. There are the four noble truths in Buddhism.Ã¢â¬Å"The doctrine of the Four Noble Truths then focuses on the relationship between suffering and attachment or desireÃ¢â¬ (Chapter 19: Asian Thought p.412). The Buddhist strongly rejects the doctrine of rebirth and karma, followed by the Buddhist doctrine of eight-hold path. Hinduism allows complete freedom to individual. It is extr emely liberal and catholic. And, also Sanskrit has got importance in this religion. Hindus have the belief that there are two stages of life. They are: Vanaprastha and Sannyasa, - man withdraws himself from all worldly activities, retires into the forest and prepares himself for taking Sannyasa. This is the life of a Vanaprastha sanyasa after vanaprasta and he leads a meditation life. Dharma, Reincarnation, and Karma are the basic tenets of Buddhism. The law